Data collection during a double crisis in Burkina Faso

0

Image: ©Dorte Verner/World Bank

Like other countries around the world, Burkina Faso has been severely affected by COVID-19 which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. As of May 30, 2022, a total of 20,899 cases have been recorded in Burkina. Faso. Unfortunately, many cases resulted in deaths for a total number of deaths of 384 (1.8% of cases). In Burkina Faso, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread at the height of an unprecedented internal displacement crisis. Although the violence was initially triggered by exogenous factors linked to regional dynamics, the current risks of conflict result both from the rise of regional violent extremism and from root structural causes. In particular, the sharp increase in the number of displaced persons over the past three years is mainly attributable to the intensification of jihadist attacks against civilians and security forces.[1] For issues related to security, in Burkina Faso, forcibly displaced persons (PDF) are mostly internally displaced persons (IDPs). According to estimates by the National Council for Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation (CONASUR), the number of internally displaced people rose from 87,000 in January 2019 to more than 1.7 million in January 2022. The unprecedented levels of displacement, that occurred as the coronavirus pandemic worsened an already critical humanitarian crisis in the violence-stricken country, called for an urgent need for timely data and analysis to better inform targeting policies and programs.

The National Institute of Statistics and Demography of Burkina Faso (INSD), with the financial and technical support of the Joint Data Center on Forced Displacements (JDC) of the World Bank and UNHCR and the technical assistance of the World Bank’s Global Practice on Poverty and Equity and the Living Standards Measurement Study Program (LSMS), implemented and disseminated data and survey summaries for the first two rounds of investigation High frequency (BFA HFPS-IDP).

The BFA HFPS-IDP was designed to assess the socio-economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on internally displaced persons (IDPs) and was conducted in three cycles between May and July 2021 jointly for IDPs and the rest of the (non-IDP) population in the country, allowing an assessment of potential differences in the experience of displaced and non-displaced people during the pandemic. Cycles 1, 2 and 3 of data collection for the HFPS-IDP took place simultaneously with Cycles 9, 10 and 11 of the national HFPS operation, respectively.

The Burkina Faso Internally Displaced Persons High Frequency Telephone Survey (BFA HFPS-IDP) baseline questionnaire was designed to cover important and relevant topics such as employment, access to basic services and staple foods, food security and non-labour sources of income. Income. The core questionnaire was supplemented with questions on selected topics that rotate monthly, including knowledge of the spread of COVID-19, social distancing and behavior, coping mechanisms to shocks, frailty, conflict and violence. Selected topics were studied in more detail in specific cycles.

This note presents a selection of results from the first two rounds of BFA HFPS-IDP data (results from round 3 will be published soon). To access the BFA HFPS-IDP microdata and related documentation (questionnaire, technical document and results sheets), please visit the World Bank Microdata Catalog here (microdata for the non-displaced population can be found here).

Food insecurity is particularly pronounced among IDPs – IDP households are almost 50 percentage points more likely to be moderately or severely food insecure than the general population of Burkina Faso (May 2021 series). The combination of moderately food insecure and severely food insecure households clearly shows that food insecurity is more prevalent in rural areas for IDPs and non-displaced households.

Figure 1: Food Insecurity Experience Scale

Figure 1: Food Insecurity Experience Scale

Job result the disparities are only slightly smaller (May 2021 round). In the week prior to data collection, eight out of ten non-displaced respondents had a job, but only five out of ten IDP respondents were working during the same period. The employment rate is slightly higher (although not significant) for out-of-camp IDPs (53.2%) than for camped IDPs (48.5%).

Figure 2: Employment status of respondents (last 7 days)

Figure 2: Employment status of respondents (last 7 days)

The economic downturn due to COVID-19 has resulted in reduced incomes across the economy. In all subgroups, most respondents reported falling income over the past year. While more than three out of five Burkinabé households (61.9%) saw their income decrease, four out of five displaced Burkinabé (83.1%) reported a drop in income (May 2021 cycle).

Figure 3: Evolution of revenues compared to April 2020

Figure 3: Evolution of revenues compared to April 2020

Displaced households have source of income general population profiles. Non-displaced households derive their income mainly from non-agricultural businesses (37.6%) and agricultural activities (26.1%) (May 2021 cycle). On the other hand, most IDPs (57.1%) receive family and non-family assistance, including remittances from abroad; income from non-agricultural businesses is the most frequent source of labor income (24.4%). Displaced people living in a camp are highly dependent on family and non-family support (including remittances from abroad), while those living outside a camp are more likely to engage in activities non-agricultural.

Figure 4: Main sources of household income

Figure 4: Main sources of household income

When schools reopened in October 2020, almost a third of displaced households had not sent all their children back to school by June 2021. This figure was well above the national average of 10% households where all the children have not returned to school (June 2021 component).

Figure 5: Households that sent their children to school after school reopened

5 Households that sent their children to school after the reopening

During the pandemic and displacement crises, access to financial services has been severely limited both for IDPs and for the Burkinabe population in general. During the survey period, informal sources such as friends and relatives were virtually the only source of credit for displaced households (not shown), and displaced households borrowed primarily to purchase food (68% ) (June 2021 series).

Figure 6: Main reason for borrowing financial resources

    Figure 6: Main reason for borrowing financial resources

Displaced households faced shocks very differently from the general population of Burkina Faso. Nationally, most households reported relying on savings, selling assets or helping friends. Displaced Burkinabé households also rely on their friends, but mostly turn to governmental and non-governmental organizations, suggesting that the displaced may have already lost their savings and assets (June 2021 series).

Figure 7: Household coping strategies to shocks adopted during the previous 2 months

Figure 7: Household coping strategies to shocks adopted during the previous 2 months

The team members working on the BFA HFPS-IDP are Marco Tiberti, Clarence Tsimpo Nkengne and Marco Costantini from world BankHarriet Mugera and Jeff Tanner of WB-UNHCR Joint Data Center on Forced Displacement (JDC) and Zakaria Koncobo from National Institute of Statistics and Demography (INSD). The team benefited from comments by Maja Lazic (UNHCR). The notes were prepared with the advice of Bjorn Erik Gillsater (JDC), Johan A. Mistiaen (World Bank), Boureima Ouedraogo and Jean Edouard Odilon Doamba (INSD). The team acknowledges the essential support of CONASUR in providing the sampling frame.


[1] For more details: https://www.unhcr.org/fr/news/briefing/2021/7/60fa9509a/nombre-personnes-forcees-fuir-violences-cours-burkina-faso-atteint-nivel.html

Share.

Comments are closed.